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Case study 6: Northern hake mixed species fisheries in Area VI, VII and VIII

Introduction - Overview description of the case study

European hake (Merluccius merluccius) is widely distributed over the northeast Atlantic shelf, from Norway to Mauritania, with a larger density from the British Islands to the south of Spain (Casey and Pereiro, 1995) and in the Mediterranean and Black sea. This species has been a very important resource for many demersal fisheries of the region. It is landed as targeted or incidental catch by a wide variety of gears (bottom trawls, nets, and longlines).

Description of the fishery, stocks and management system

Hake, is one of the most important resource for many European fishing fleets whose harvest involves a large number of vessels from several European countries. The Hake fishery is a very economically important fishery to Spain, France, UK and Ireland. In 2003, and in a very gross approximation, the value of the Hake TAC was estimated in non less than €90 m.

The main part of the fishery (close to 80% of the total landings) was conducted in five Fishery Units, three of them from Sub-area VII: FU 4 (Non-Nephrops trawling in medium to deep water in Sub-area VII), FU 1 (Long-line in medium to deep water in Sub-area VII), and FU 3 (Gill nets in Sub-area VII), and two from Sub-area VIII: FU 13 (Gill nets in shallow to me-dium water) and FU 14 (Trawling in medium to deep water in Sub-area VIII), representing respectively 19%, 18%, 16%, 14%, and 12% of the total in 2005. From the information reported to the Working Group, Spain accounts for the main part of the landings with 59% of the total in 2005. France is now taking 29% of the total, UK 6%, Denmark 3% and Ireland 2%.

Fleet/species interactions

Northern Hake is caught as part of a multispecies and multigear fisheries. Thus, several other species, some of them also of great economical importance, are usually caught together with the Hake. Some of them are routinely assessed by the ICES Working Groups and their catches are regulated by the TACs and Quotas system (Anglerfish,, Megrim, Sole, Neprhops Whiting, Cod, Horse mackerel…and others) but others not yet Cephalopods, Rays, Pouts…). The relative importance of these “other species” in relation to the Northern Hake is very variable depending on the country, fleet and sea area involved. In many cases, “the other species” represent a major importance in terms of incomes than the Northern hake for a particular country or fleet.

The main interactions between the Hake fisheries and species and gears that exploit it are between: • anglerfish, megrim, and hake in the otter board trawl fishery in medium to deep water; • Nephrops, cod, and whiting in the Nephrops fishery in the Celtic Sea, and between Nephrops and hake in the Bay of Biscay; • gadoids (cod, haddock, and whiting) within the trawl fishery for roundfish, mainly within Divisions VIIf,g; • sole and plaice in the beam trawl fishery in Divisions VIIf,g and VIIe, and sole and anglerfish in VIIIa,b; • haddock, whiting, cod, sole, plaice, hake, megrim, anglerfish, squid, elasmobranchs, and other species within the mixed demersal trawl fisheries. - Mixed demersal fish, i.e. hake, anglerfish, megrim in the artisanal gillnet fishery in the Bay of Biscay. - Anglerfish and hake in fixed-net fisheries (Rasco directed and Beta and Volanta respectively).

The directed fisheries for hake (trawl, longlines, and gillnets) and Bay of Biscay sole (gillnets) have few interactions with other stocks:

General description of the state of the stocks of main species including stock structures,

Status of the stocks considered exploited jointly with Northern Hake are presented in the following Table.

Species & Stocks Spawning biomass in relation to precautionary limits Fishing mortality in relation to precautionary limits Fishing mortality in relation to target reference points
Anglerfish in Divisions VIIb–k and VIIIa,b (L. piscatorius and L. budegassa) Full reproductive capacity Harvested sustainably (L. piscatorius) (L. budegassa) Overexploited
Hake – Northern stock (Division IIIa, Subareas IV, VI and VII, and Divisions VIIIa, b, d Full reproductive capacity Harvested sustainable F bias around agreed target
Megrim in Divisions VIIb,c,e-k and VIIIa,b,d (L. whiffiagonis and L. boscii) Unknown Unknown Unknown
Nephrops in Divisions VIIIa,b (Management Area N)Reference points not defined Reference points not defined Unknown
Plaice Southwest of Ireland (Division VIIh-k)Unknown Unknown Unknown

The base case has been defined following the assumptions of the ICES assessment working group. Thus, only hake is considered. Nine age classes (age 0 to age 8 plus), a single area and yearly time steps for the simulation have been considered. The effort done by the fleet each year was assumed as the effort that allows the fleet to catch the imposed TAC.

In the biological model: a hockey-stick relationship between recruitment and spawning stock biomass (SSB) is considered with the inflexion point set at SSBlim, over that point of SSB, recruitment will be considered essentially random. The SSB has been calculated using a sex combined maturity at age ogive constant over the years and assuming that specimina weight is a proxy of the fecundity. To calculate the abundance of older ages, recruitment and survival equations consider N = 0.2 and the fishing mortality of each fleet is proportional to its effort, being the constant of proportionality equal to the capturability. The link between the biological and fleet model is the fishing mortality. For the assessment, the XSA (eXtended Survivors Analysis) model is used. In the observation model, annual catch data by fleet is simply aggregated so catch data is assumed to be known without error.

For the management procedure a total allocable catch (TAC) will be considered calculated using the actual defined Biological References Points (BRP).

specific population, economic and management issues to be addressed

Potential options to narrow down

* Alternative (double) hake growth scenario.

* Different stock recruitment models (Ricker, segmented regression, and segmented regression with the change point in Blim.

* Different Natural Mortality.

* Different price scenarios.

* Different cost scenarios.

Management scenarios to be used in the alternative Base case have been decided and refined after CS meetings the main management procedures established were

Management measure Design Knowledge requirements Relevance for Hake CS Priority (1:high)
Status quo TAC base case operating model serves as a reference to gauge the other scenarios 1
Multi-annual TAC restricting - base case operating model -model the link between multiannual TAC and Uncertainty/Risk -reduces interannual variability in catch and profitability1
MPA and seasonal closures temporary spatial closures for gears and fleets (e.g. nursery areas) -spatial and seasonal dynamics -reallocation of fishing effort in space and between fleets (link with effort-based controls)-maps of fleet dynamics to choose scenarios -spatial issues to be deployed in ISIS-Fish and link to FLR -Hake recovery plan and new CFP orientations 1
Technical measures -selectivity-link with MPA -link with Hake recovery plan1
ITQ on catch and effort CS Northern Hake just contributes in the Base Knowledge needed for this management No modelling will be accomplishlimit transfer to fleet scale -Effort allocation between fleets -Cost structure, market structure -Transferability model (bid-auction system)- nt measure Relevance just for the Spanish fleet2
Combination of measurescombining effort controls and a) MPA; b) selectivity; c) TACsame as above necessary to consider scenarios involving both input controls and either output controls or technical measures2
Effort controls-simple scenarios with n spatial/seasonal needs : *nb of vessels per fleet or gear *nb days fished per fleet *allocation in nb days between fleets (targetted and non targeted) -capacity limitations: tonnage, HP -nb of vessels per fleet/gear (fleet segmentation)-transferability model (same requirement as ITQ)-investment and profitability model (see MEFISTO - R code)-build from the TECTAC results-technical characteristics of the vessels/fleets -link with new fleet segmentation at the European level2/3
Multispecies TAC -need models for other species : monk, megrim, horse mackerel, etc… (see assessment WG)-need XSA outputs -Fishing mortality per stock per fleet -MTAC model exists in R - used in STECF -MTAC is a tool effectively used so relevant to evaluate it 3

Description of approaches for scenario evaluations

Results (summary of scenario evaluations)

Results of the FLR approach

Results in relation to the Base Case and Multiannaul TAC management system

results

Results of the FL -ISIS approach

Results in relation to changes of mesh size and area closures

results

Dissemination

Papers and Posters produced connected to EFIMAS work

Bastardie, F., Pelletier, D., Mahevas, S., Guyder, O., Thebaud, O., Santurtun, M., and Prellezo, R. (Submitted). ISIS-FLR: a spatially and seasonally bioeconomic model for mixed fisheries. Application to the Northern hake / Nephrops fisheries of the Bay of Biscay (and Celtic Sea). Submitted ELSEVIER (In revision).

Kell L. T., Mosqueira I., Grosjean P., Fromentin J. M., Garcia D., Jardim R., Mardle S., Pastoors M., Poos J. J., Scott F., Scoot R.. FLR: an open-source framework for the evaluation and development of management strategies. ICES J. Mar. Sci., Vol.64(4): 640-646, 2007.

Titles of scientific presentations and abstracts at the ICES Symposium on Fisheries Management Strategies produced (fully or partly) through financial support from the EU FP6 project EFIMAS, ‘Operational Evaluation Tools for Fisheries Management Options’:

FLR: An Open Source Fisheries Library or Framework for the Evaluation of Management Strategies. Laurence Kell, Philippe Grosjean, Iago Mosqueria, Jean-Marc Fromentin, Ernest Jardim, Richard Hillary, Simon Mardle, Jan-Jaap Poos, Robert Scott.

A generic extendable multi-fleet fisheries operational model in FLR with two example applications. Dorleta García and Iago Mosqueira

Project reports / draft project reports / working documents

García, D. and Mosquiera, I. 2005. FLR: A Framework for Fisheries Management in R. An Application to Northern Hake. WD presented at the WGHMM hold in Lisbon 10-19 May 2005.

García, D., and Mosqueira, I. 2006. “A generic Operating Model using FLR: An aplication to Northern Hake”. Working Document, ICES WGHMM,2006.

García Dorleta. 2007. Northern and Southern Hake Recovery Plans A Preliminary Analysis. WD presented at the WGHMM2007 in Vigo. May 2007.

General disemmination

Presentation of the EFIMAS models concept to the Fisheries Association and POs of the Basque Country on its annual scientist-industry meeting (21 Dec 2006, Ondarroa, Bizkaia, Spain)

García Dorleta. FLR meeting in England. December 2007.

García Dorleta. STECF Evaluation of policy statement: Harvest rules. Lisbon . March 2007.

García, D., Prellezo R., and Santurtún M. SGRBE-07-03 : Northern hake long-term mngmnt (June 4-8, 2007 Lisbon)

García Dorleta. STECF Follow up meeting Evaluation of policy statement: Harvest rules. Lisbon. September 2007.

García, D. and Prellezo R., SGBRE-07-05: Northern hake follow up meeting (3rd-6th December, 2007, Brussels)

Aranda M. Aplicación de modelos operacionales en la gestión de pesquerías. Instituto de Fomento Pesquero de Chile –Valparaíso. 6-7 June 2007.

MSE Tools for Long Term Management Evaluation of Northern Hake presented to:

RAC SWW: Santigao de Compostela, 23 oct 2008

RAC NWW: Bruselas, 31 Oct 2008

García D., Prellezo R. & Marina Santurtún. Update on EFIMAS Project: Evaluation tool for Alternative scenarios for Northern Hake fisheries management (Management Strategies Evaluation (MSE)) NWW RAC Focus Group on Northern Hake Long Term Management 21st February 2008, Bilbao

  • Delivery Matrix by April 2006

Delivery_Matrix_CS6_hke_basecase_alternativecase

References

Kell, L., Mosqueira, I., Grosjean, P., Fromentin, J-M, Garcia, D., Hillary, R., Jardim, E., Mardle, S., Pastoors, M., Poos, J.-J., Scott, F., Scott, R.D. 2007. FLR: An open source framework for the evaluation and development of management strategies. ICES Journal of Marine Science 64: 000-000.

Bastardie, F., Pelletier, D., Mahevas, S., Guyder, O., Thebaud, O., Santurtun, M., and Prellezo, R. (Submitted). ISIS-FLR: a spatially and seasonally bioeconomic model for mixed fisheries. Application to the Northern hake / Nephrops fisheries of the Bay of Biscay (and Celtic Sea). Submitted ELSEVIER.

García, D. and Mosquiera, I. 2005. FLR: A Framework for Fisheries Management in R. An Application to Northern Hake. WD presented at the WGHMM hold in Lisbon 10-19 May 2005.

García, D., and Mosqueira, I. 2006. “A generic Operating Model using FLR: An aplication to Northern Hake”. Working Document, ICES WGHMM,2006.

EFIMAS Contribution to the work and Acknowledgements

AZTI: This work has been partly funded by the European VI Framework Research Program under the EFIMAS (Project SSP8-CT-2003)(Directorate A - Conservation policy, DG Fisheries and Maritime Affairs, European Commission), the Autonomous Basque Government (Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (Viceconsejería de Desarrollo Agrario y Pesquero), Innovation and Tecnological Development Directorate (Viceconsejería de Politica e Industria Alimentaria)) and the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology.

UPV: This work has been funded by the European VI Framework Research Program under the EFIMAS (Project SSP8-CT-2003)

CS participants

Coordinator: Marina Santurtún AZTI (Spain)

Participants:

Iago Mosqueira AZTI (Spain)

Dorleta García AZTI (Spain)

Raúl Prellezo AZTI (Spain)

Arantza Murillas AZTI (Spain)

Antonio Vazquez CSIC (Spain)

Dominique Pelletier IFREMER (France)

Olivier Guyader IFREMER (France)

Francois Bastardie IFREMER (France)

Stephanie Mahevas IFREMER (France)

Barry Eustace Marine Institute (Ireland)

Jordi Guillem Univ. Barcelona (Spain)

Ikerne del Valle UPV (Spain)

Kepa Astorkiza UPV (Spain)

Inma Astorkiza UPV (Spain)

Meeting Documents and Other Case Specific Work - working documents, models, analyses etc.

First CS meeting October 2005 (Sukarrieta, Spain)

Second CS meeting April 2006 (Nantes, France)

Third CS meeting October 2006 (Bilbao, Spain)

Additional Documentation

EFIMAS Lisbon Meeting April 2007

Mini CS6 meeting on task already developed and to be deployed during 2nd semester 2007

Introduction of uncertainty in the aging process using multinomial distribution

 
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